London & Oxford, 25th February 2020: His Excellency Ban Ki-moon, the former Secretary-General of the United Nations will inaugurate the Global Soft Power Summit organised by Brand Finance, the world’s leading independent brand valuation consultancy. The two-day conference will be held at London’s Queen Elizabeth II Centre and the University of Oxford’s Blavatnik School of Government on 25-26 February and is set to welcome over 600 delegates representing more than 100 countries. The summit will be attended by government officials, nation branding experts, academics, diplomats, and international media.
Speakers representing the various pillars of soft power will include Sir Ciáran Devane, Chief Executive of the British Council; Lord Sebastian Coe, President of World Athletics; Dr Yu Jie of Chatham House China Programme; Dr Maleeha Lodhi, Pakistan’s former permanent representative to the United Nations; Paul Brummell, Head of Soft Power at the Foreign and Commonwealth Office; Amish Tripathi, Director of the Nehru Centre; and Omar Salha from SOAS Centre of International Security and Diplomacy.
The world’s most comprehensive research study on perceptions of soft power
The Global Soft Power Summit serves as the unveiling of the Global Soft Power Index, the world’s most comprehensive research study on perceptions of soft power, surveying opinions of over 55,000 people across more than 100 countries. Respondents representing both the general public and specialist audiences were interviewed online and by telephone during Autumn 2019 about the influence that nations around the world exert upon each other.
Top 60 nations were scored across three key metrics: Familiarity, Reputation, and Influence, as well as the seven soft power pillars: Business & Trade, Governance, International Relations, Culture & Heritage, Media & Communications, Education & Science, People & Values.
David Haigh, Chairman and CEO of Brand Finance, will say:
“We are delighted to be joined by our guest of honour the 8th Secretary-General of the United Nations – His Excellency Ban Ki-moon – to announce our inaugural ranking of the world’s top soft power nations.
The Global Soft Power Index is the result of a ground-breaking fieldwork research, the most inclusive of its kind, with over 55,000 respondents in 100 countries. It allows us to see in aggregate how the world views the top soft power nations, but it also enables – thanks to the scale of the sample – a more granular snapshot of nation-to-nation attitudes. These findings are vital for governments seeking to better manage their nation brands and improve their soft power influence in specific countries and on specific metrics.”
In his keynote address at the QEII Centre, Ban Ki-moon, the 8th Secretary-General of the United Nations will say:
“Building on the strength of the Brand Finance Nation Brands report, and featuring the opinions of over 55,000 people in more than 100 countries, I am confident that the Global Soft Power Index will serve as a great contribution to the theory and practice of diplomacy and foreign policy moving forward.
As Secretary-General of the United Nations, I led the Organization with the understanding that soft power is an essential ingredient in international diplomacy. Additionally, soft power can help further the peace and development goals of the United Nations, particularly the UN SDGs, and reinforce global progress.
In fact, the three pillars of the UN – peace and security, development, and human rights – are all in line with the same objectives of soft power and can help bring nations and peoples together through cooperation and partnership.”
USA – Soft Power Superpower
With the highest Global Soft Power Index score of 67.1 out of 100 and distancing the runner-up by more than 5 points, the United States is arguably the world’s only soft power superpower, winning on more characteristics than any other country. The US has posted top scores for Familiarity and Influence among others, balancing low ranks on Reputation (13th) and Governance (16th).
David Haigh, Chairman and CEO of Brand Finance, will say:
“Soft power cannot be rapidly achieved, nor lost. The United States has shown that ultimately, despite the reputational challenges of impeachment and unpredictable foreign policy, its position as the rule-maker in the international system and the world’s only soft power superpower is unrivalled, and it will remain so as long as its economy, media, and culture reign supreme.”
With an overall score of 61.9 and wielding the most soft power in Europe, Germany marginally beats the United Kingdom (61.8) to second place in the Index. A testament to its deliberate focus on soft rather than hard power, Germany ranks in the top 3 for five out of the seven soft power pillars, boosted especially by positive perceptions of its stable economy and governance. Despite mixed feelings about Chancellor Merkel’s legacy at home, perceptions of her leadership within the EU and the bold response to the migration crisis have been recognised abroad as the nation ranks first for being helpful to countries in need and second for influence in diplomatic circles.
Two, perhaps unexpected, nations in the top 10 are China (58.7) and Russia (51.0), claiming 5th and 10th position in the Global Soft Power Index respectively. Their high rankings have disturbed the Western, liberal soft power status quo. However, both nations’ Reputation rankings are considerably lower than their Influence ranking. For Influence, China sits in 2nd and Russia in 7th, whereas for Reputation, China falls to 24th and Russia to 26th.
Brand Britain undented by Brexit
Despite ongoing uncertainty following the Brexit referendum and subsequent withdrawal from the European Union, the United Kingdom ranks 3rd overall, with a Global Soft Power Index score of 61.8 out of 100 proving that the UK has transformed a sense of universal Familiarity and favourable Reputation into Influence on the global stage. Queen Elizabeth II and the Royal Family have been pivotal in maintaining the nation’s relevance as Britain’s economy and hard power are being dwarfed by the rise of the East. The world’s longest reigning monarch, the Queen is a powerful symbol of the nation and the Commonwealth.
Arguably one of Britain’s greatest soft power tools is the BBC, which reaches a colossal 426 million viewers and listeners abroad per week. The BBC’s high level of credibility is reflected in the UK’s 2nd place ranking in the Media & Communications pillar. With the continued success of the media powerhouse in leveraging soft power, several nations have emulated the service by launching their own global networks.
The UK ranks in the top 3 for the Culture & Heritage pillar and scores particularly well for its influence in arts and entertainment and for its rich heritage. The allure of Britishness prevails, from Shakespeare to the hugely popular period TV dramas such as Downton Abbey or The Crown, which have amassed a cult following.
Asian soft power titans
In Asia, the highest-ranking nation is Japan (60.2), claiming 4th spot globally and ranking consistently in the top 10 on all key metrics. Despite an economic slowdown, Japan has reaped the benefits of its strong brands, solid consumer spends, and high levels of business investment, ranking first in the Business & Trade pillar. As the 3rd largest global economy, Japan is a forward-thinking and outward-looking nation with the second highest spend worldwide on research and development, reflected in its 2nd spot on the Education & Science pillar.
One of the top trading economies for volume of goods and services, South Korea (14th – 48.3) is scoring similarly high on both Business & Trade and Education & Science. Boasting an impressive portfolio of high-performing tech brands such as Samsung, Hyundai, and LG, South Korea continues to pave the way for innovation, working alongside its Japanese neighbour to pivot soft power further to the east.
His Excellency Ban Ki-moon will also speak about Korean soft power:
“My country Korea is currently enjoying considerable soft power on the global stage. Korean soft power assets such as K-Pop music, Korean food like kimchi and bibimbap, and our Oscar-winning best picture film Parasite are incredibly well-known and increasingly popular around the world. This Hallyu, or Korean Wave, has captivated foreign publics the world over.”
Nordics held in high esteem – Greta a soft power champion
The Nordic nations in particular have been boosted by their perception among the general public as climate friendly, with Sweden ranking first globally for this metric. This is likely attributable to the efforts of Greta Thunberg who has become the voice of millions of young people demanding action to prevent irreversible changes to the environment.
Sweden, Denmark, Norway, and Finland all rank in the top 10 for Reputation as well as for the Governance pillar, but lag behind on Influence. Trailblazers on specific issues, whether it be climate change, social welfare, or employees’ rights, and garnering appreciation around the world for their relentless efforts, these nations often lack sufficient clout to influence other nations to follow their leadership. The Paris Agreement on climate change is an example of how the withdrawal of a single but influential nation, such as the US, can undo years of work by many smaller ones.
World’s most generous nation, Canada wins most medals
Canada ranks highest globally for the People & Values pillar. The effects of a liberal asylum and migration policy on its soft power are clear – general public respondents rank Canada as the world’s most generous nation, 2nd for friendliness, and 3rd for tolerance. Also its International Relations score benefits from its open policies, with the nation perceived as helpful to countries in need (2nd), acting to protect the environment (2nd), and maintaining good relations with other countries (3rd). Canada ranks in the top 3 for 13 soft power characteristics – more than any other nation – but wins too few golds to top the medal table.
Spain is the world’s friendliest nation
Just behind Canada in the medal table, Spain derives its two golds from the People & Values pillar. The world’s view is that the Spanish people are the most fun and friendly of any nation in the world. The people from the land of long lunches, late nights, flamenco, food-sharing, and football are incredibly well-liked across the globe. This is largely driven by the fact that Spain is undoubtedly still an international benchmark as a nation of leisure and tourism – a sector that contributed 14.6% to the national GDP in 2019.
Overall, Spain ranks 16th out of a total of 60 nations in the Index, with a final score of 47.6. Despite positive results on People & Values, Spain’s performance is mixed in other areas, such as Governance, International Relations, and Education & Science. Recent issues involving Catalonia, troubles building a coalition government, corruption scandals, and the lingering impacts of the Great Recession are likely to be at fault here. Strength and stability at home is obviously a precursor for influence abroad.
UAE Mars Mission propels its soft power
As the Middle East’s highest ranked soft power nation, the United Arab Emirates is in 18th position in the Index and receives a Global Soft Power Index score of 45.9 out of 100. The UAE’s main soft power strength is its appealing business environment, stable economy and consensus that it is a great place to do business in and with. The responses from specialist audiences were particularly positive, especially among business leaders. From non-business audiences (Media, Academics, General Public), scores are solid but lag behind market leader nations such as Singapore, Switzerland, and the US.
The UAE’s reputation is weakest across science and technology specifically, although this could be set to change drastically since the recent announcement of the Emirates Mars Mission, a planned space exploration probe mission to Mars launched by the United Arab Emirates Mohammed bin Rashid Space Centre. Carried out by a team of Emirati engineers in collaboration with foreign research institutions, the Mission is a contribution towards a knowledge-based economy in the UAE. The UAE’s positive brand image, such as its new unified Nation Brand unveiled in December 2019, has allowed the young nation to succeed when other Arab states have faltered.
Expand to 193 nations
Brand Finance defines soft power as “a nation’s ability to influence the preferences and behaviours of various actors in the international arena (states, corporations, communities, publics etc.) through attraction or persuasion rather than coercion”. The London-based consultancy intends to commission annual waves of the research, extending the breadth and depth to cover all 193 nations in the UN. The Brand Finance Institute will also be developing a programme of best practice in global soft power together with academic and nation brand partners.
Note to Editors
Full ranking, charts, commentary, expert contributions, definitions of key terms, and more information about the methodology are available in the Global Soft Power Index report.
Please also see the report for additional, in-depth spotlights on Australia, India, Ireland, Israel, New Zealand, Singapore, South Africa, Spain, UAE, UK, Central & Eastern Europe, and Latin America.
Data compiled for the Brand Finance rankings and reports are provided for the benefit of the media and are not to be used for any commercial or technical purpose without written permission from Brand Finance.
T: +44 (0)2073 899 400
M: +44 (0)7939 118 932
T: +44 (0)2073 899 400
M: +44 (0)79366 963 669
T: +44 (0)2073 899 400
M: +44 (0)7508 304 782
About Brand Finance
Brand Finance is the world’s leading independent brand valuation consultancy, with offices in over 20 countries. Brand Finance bridges the gap between marketing and finance by quantifying the financial value of brands.
Brand Finance helped craft the internationally recognised standard on Brand Valuation – ISO 10668, and the recently approved standard on Brand Evaluation – ISO 20671.
Brand Finance is a chartered accountancy firm regulated by the Institute of Chartered Accountants in England and Wales (ICAEW), and also the first brand valuation consultancy to join the International Valuation Standards Council (IVSC).
About the Global Soft Power Index by Brand Finance
For over 15 years, Brand Finance has been publishing the annual Nation Brands report – a study into the world’s 100 most valuable and strongest nation brands. Focusing on the financial value and strength of nation brands, the Brand Finance Nation Brands study is based on publicly available information, including data compiled by third parties for other indices and rankings.
Building on this experience, Brand Finance has now produced the Global Soft Power Index – the world’s most comprehensive research study on perceptions of soft power of 60 nations from around the world. The Global Soft Power Index is based on the most wide-ranging fieldwork of its kind, surveying the general public as well as specialist audiences, with responses gathered from over 55,000 people across more than 100 countries. The Global Soft Power Index 2020 report is the inaugural iteration of this study, which Brand Finance hopes to conduct annually.
Global Soft Power Index Methodology
In autumn 2019, two surveys were conducted, both global in scope:
The Global Soft Power Index incorporates a broad range of measures, which in combination provide a balanced and holistic assessment of nations’ presence, reputation, and impact on the world stage. These include:
• Awareness and Familiarity: nation brands which people know, and have mental availability of, have greater soft power
• Overall Influence: the degree to which a nation is seen to have influence in the respondent’s country as well as on the world’s stage
• Overall Reputation: is this nation deemed to have a strong and positive reputation globally?
• Performance on the 7 Soft Power Pillars (Business & Trade, Governance, International Relations, Culture & Heritage, Media & Communication, Education & Science, People & Values)
The weightings given to each measure within the Index were based on a combination of expert opinion, coming from an extensive literature review and expert consultation process, and statistical analysis assessing the degree to which pillar performance correlates with Overall Influence.
The Index gives a 75% weighting to the views of the General Public and 25% to those of Specialist Audiences.
An online survey was conducted among 54,206 adults aged 18-75, across 87 countries. As such, our sample is representative of the online population of each country. In developing markets with relatively low internet access (below 85% across all age groups), this skews the sample somewhat towards people with higher education, income, and connectivity – but we deem this acceptable, as it is these groups in the population who are most likely to be affected by soft power and have some familiarity with other nations.
Two fieldwork approaches were employed. Both have been shown to provide good representations of public opinion. In more developed markets, established online research panels were used. Panel selection and management was conducted by Savanta.
Where online panel coverage is weak, we partnered with Qriously adopting a relatively new and cutting-edge approach based on buying advertising space via digital exchanges. Such an approach can be applied even to very challenging markets like Iraq and Venezuela.
Quotas were applied by age, gender, and (in panel markets) region – in line with the online population profiles of each country.
Regional and global total scores were calculated by combining country results using the following weights:
50% – the ‘one country one vote’ rule, accounting for the sovereignty and differences between the multitude of nations around the world
50% – the size of the online population aged 18-75, with the opinions of the residents of large countries, e.g. China receiving a much greater weight than those of smaller countries, e.g. Estonia
Each respondent was shown a random sub-set of nation brands and asked about their familiarity. For nations about which the respondent had some knowledge, a detailed assessment of reputation, influence, and performance on 30 characteristics representing the 7 Soft Power Pillars was obtained. Across each country sample, the 60 nation brands were rotated to ensure that all nations were assessed globally. Surveys were conducted in the major languages of each country, totalling 42 languages globally.
© Brand Finance 2020